Empowering Women in the Workplace: A Closer Look at Pakistan’s Protection Against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act, 2010


In Pakistan, as in many parts of the world, women have been an integral part of the workforce for decades, contributing significantly to various sectors of the economy. However, like in many other countries, they have also faced challenges, including workplace harassment. Recognizing the need to ensure a safe and conducive work environment for women, the Pakistani government introduced the Protection Against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act in 2010. This landmark legislation was a significant step towards addressing gender-based harassment and ensuring gender equality in the workplace.

Understanding the Act

The Protection Against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act, 2010, is a comprehensive legal framework designed to prevent, prohibit, and provide redressal for sexual harassment at workplaces. This legislation is a powerful tool for promoting gender equality and creating a more inclusive work environment in Pakistan. Let’s take a closer look at some key aspects of this act:

1. Definition of Harassment: The Act provides a clear and inclusive definition of harassment, encompassing various forms of physical, verbal, and non-verbal harassment, as well as cyber harassment. It recognizes that harassment can occur both in physical workplaces and through digital communication channels.

2. Employer’s Responsibilities: The Act places a significant onus on employers to prevent and address workplace harassment. Employers are required to establish an Internal Complaints Committee (ICC) to receive and address complaints of harassment. This committee should include at least one female employee at a senior level.

3. Complaint Mechanism: The Act outlines a detailed procedure for filing complaints of harassment. It ensures that the complainant’s identity is protected and that they are not subjected to any retaliation for coming forward. The Act also mandates the ICC to complete its inquiry within 90 days.

4. *Penalties for Offenders:The Act prescribes strict penalties for individuals found guilty of harassment, including fines and imprisonment. This sends a strong message that harassment will not be tolerated.

5. Awareness and Training: Employers are required to organize workshops and training sessions to raise awareness about the Act and sensitize employees about the importance of maintaining a harassment-free workplace.

Impact and Challenges

The Protection Against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act, 2010, has had a positive impact on workplaces in Pakistan. It has empowered women to report instances of harassment without fear and has made employers more accountable for ensuring a safe environment. However, challenges remain:

1.Implementation: While the law is in place, its effective implementation is often hindered by bureaucratic hurdles, lack of awareness, and inadequate resources. Many smaller organizations may not have the capacity to establish ICCs or provide comprehensive training.

2. Stigma: Social stigma around harassment complaints can deter victims from coming forward. The Act should be further promoted and publicized to reduce this stigma.

3. Cultural Norms:  Deep-seated cultural norms and attitudes towards women in the workplace can also pose challenges. Changing these attitudes requires a sustained effort from both the government and civil society.


The Protection Against Harassment of Women at the Workplace Act, 2010, is a crucial piece of legislation in Pakistan’s journey towards gender equality in the workplace. While significant progress has been made, there is still much work to be done to fully realize its potential. This includes improving awareness, simplifying the complaint process, and addressing cultural barriers. By continuing to strengthen and enforce this Act, Pakistan can create a more equitable work environment, where women can thrive professionally without the fear of harassment. It’s a testament to Pakistan’s commitment to fostering gender equality and ensuring that workplaces are safe and inclusive for all.

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