Understanding the Different Classes of FIR (First Information Report) in Pakistan


In Pakistan, the First Information Report (FIR) is a crucial document in the criminal justice system. It serves as the starting point for any criminal investigation and is essential for maintaining law and order in the country. FIRs in Pakistan are categorized into different classes, each serving a distinct purpose and governed by specific laws. In this blog, we will explore the various classes of FIRs in Pakistan and shed light on the relevant legal provisions.

The Legal Framework

The legal framework for FIRs in Pakistan primarily relies on the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) and the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC). These laws outline the procedures for lodging FIRs and the subsequent investigation and legal actions. Additionally, specific laws may apply to particular types of offenses, such as terrorism or narcotics-related crimes.

Classes of FIRs in Pakistan

1. *Cognizable Offense FIR:*
A cognizable offense is a serious crime for which the police can arrest a suspect without a warrant.
This class of FIR is usually filed for offenses like murder, robbery, kidnapping, and sexual assault.
Under Section 154 of the CrPC, anyone can file a FIR for a cognizable offense. The police are obligated to register it without delay.

2. *Non-Cognizable Offense FIR:*
Non-cognizable offenses are less severe crimes for which the police cannot arrest the suspect without a warrant.
FIRs for non-cognizable offenses are typically filed for minor disputes and offenses like simple assault or defamation.
Section 155 of the CrPC governs the filing of non-cognizable offense FIRs. The police can only begin an investigation after receiving permission from a Magistrate.

3. *Complaint FIR:*
A complaint FIR is filed when a private individual lodges a complaint about an offense that did not occur in the presence of a police officer.
The police will register the complaint under Section 200 of the CrPC, and the Magistrate may order an investigation.

4. *Zero FIR:*
A Zero FIR is a unique type of FIR where a police station that first receives the complaint is not the jurisdictional police station for the case.
The FIR is initially registered at the non-jurisdictional station and later transferred to the appropriate police station for investigation.
This allows for prompt action in cases where time is of the essence.

5. *Cross FIR:*
A Cross FIR is filed when two or more parties involved in a dispute simultaneously register FIRs against each other.
– This often occurs in cases of clashes, family disputes, or neighborhood conflicts.
The police investigate all FIRs and submit their findings to the court.

6. *Suomoto FIR:*
Suomoto FIRs are registered by the police on their initiative without receiving a formal complaint.
This is often done in cases of public interest or when the police become aware of a potential crime.
The police have the authority to initiate an investigation and file an FIR without waiting for a complaint.


Understanding the different classes of FIRs in Pakistan is essential for both law enforcement agencies and the general public. These classifications help streamline the criminal justice process and ensure that appropriate actions are taken based on the severity of the offense. It is crucial for individuals to be aware of their rights and responsibilities when it comes to filing FIRs or cooperating with the police during investigations. The legal framework governing FIRs in Pakistan aims to maintain justice, uphold the rule of law, and protect the rights of all citizens.

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